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Guest Blogger: Cindy Spencer Pape (Contest!)
Thursday, March 10th, 2011

Hey there! I’m heading out of town for a conference, so I’ll only have spotty access to email and this blog. To keep you entertained, I have guests arriving every day. Check out the schedule!

Thursday: Cindy Spencer Pape
Friday: Margaret Rowe
Saturday: Snippet Saturday (moi!)
Sundy: Taige Crenshaw

Enjoy! ~DD

IF THE SHEATH FITS

A brief overview of condom history
By Cindy Spencer Pape

A question that often arises among romance authors is whether or not to have their heroes suit up. Dress the soldier. Wear a raincoat. In other words, use protection, act responsibly, practice safe sex. The condom has become one of the more debated aspects of the romance genre, especially erotic romance.

Arguments on both sides can be fierce. Many authors and readers argue that it’s irresponsible of fiction to not show characters engaging in (and presumably enjoying) safe sex. Others maintain that the romance novel is inherently a fantasy, and to interrupt the moment with mundane precautions would detract from the reader’s enjoyment. While both sides have valid points to be made, the decision gets even trickier when writing a historical romance.

Condoms have been available, in one form or another, for a long, long time. Whether or not our historical heroes would have had ready access to them or any inclination to use them depends on a lot of variables: when and where the hero lives being the most important. Wealth, religion, educational level—all of these can factor in. And of course, depending on how it was made and what it was made of, the efficacy varied wildly. So to get it right, an author actually needs to know a little bit about the origins of the little foil packet.

When I started writing Marry Me, Marietta, for a special Ellora’s Cave project a few years ago, I had to do some serious digging to find out what my Victorian physician hero would have access to and use. Of course, once I started, I became fascinated by the research and had to know more.

Nobody knows exactly when the condom was invented. There are Egyptian hieroglyphics roughly 3000 years old that show a man wearing what looks like a linen sheath over his penis. Nobody is sure if this was to prevent disease or pregnancy, or just for decoration. There are rumors of the Romans using this or that for contraception, but no definite references to what could be considered a condom. Cave paintings in France dated to around 100 AD again show men wearing a colored sheath, but again, we have no idea why.

However, people have been trying to not get pregnant, for one reason or another, almost as long as others have been trying to get pregnant. And it’s just common sense to put a barrier between the sperm and the womb. So the use of homemade condoms could go back—well—as at least as long as humans have been making sausage. Given the obviousness of a length of sheep gut with a knot tied in it, it seems likely that these relatively risky versions have been used for a very long time. Keep in mind though, that most of Europe was Catholic through the Middle Ages, and that the Catholic Church considered contraception of any kind (even withdrawal) a major sin. So while the concept may well have existed, it probably wasn’t discussed publicly or in common use.

The first written reference to what we now call a condom was by an Italian scientist named Fallopio (yes, as in Fallopian tubes) in 1564. He claimed to have “invented” a device to prevent the spread of venereal disease. The description isn’t very detailed, but apparently it was a linen sheath that fit over the glans—basically a little bonnet that tied on just over the head of the penis. He actually tested it on 1100 men and none of them became infected. So the condom for disease prevention isn’t a recent phenomenon. Another doctor published something similar in 1597.

From there forward, there’s a pretty clear record of condom use and innovation. They’re mentioned in a French play from 1655, maybe in the correspondence of two French noblewomen from the late 1600s and quite extensively in the memoirs of the legendary Giacomo Casanova, published in 1797. The famous lover didn’t much like them and there’s an engraving in the book of he and a friend inflating them like balloons to entertain a pair of ladies, thus starting a proud tradition carried out by high school boys to this day.

The word condom dates in print to 1706, in a poem, but the origins of the word remain a mystery. Legend says that a Dr. Condom introduced them to Charles II of England as a means of preventing additional illegitimate offspring, but no support of this has ever been found, and it’s now assumed to be a myth.

By the late 1700s you could find prophylactics made of hand sewn goat, sheep, or cow intestine, tanned fish skin, oiled silk, or even very fine leather. Some covered the whole penis, others were caps or “capottes” that just covered the glans, and most had a drawstring at the base to hold them in place. Condom technology really took off in the 1800s. They had great names like cundums, French Letters, French Preservatives, Male Safes, English Armor, and “Patent Circular Protector.”

Early experiments with rubber were fairly unsuccessful, until Goodyear and Hancock (separately) in about 1844 invented the vulcanization process. The new technique allowed for much more durable protection, though the resulting condoms were thicker than those made of skin. They were also designed to be washed out and reused until the rubber started to crumble. The first advertisement for rubber condoms appeared in the New York Times in 1861, so we know they were widely available by then. In 1873, the Comstock Act prohibited the sale of contraceptives by mail in the US, so for many years, they became harder to get with relative anonymity. The reservoir tip was added in 1901, and a method for making them without seams was discovered in Germany in 1912. In 1930 the latex condom was introduced, thus creating the rubber we know today.

Condom history often parallels the mores of society. The strict moralism of America in the early 1900s led to concentrated efforts to restrict condom use. As a result, during WWI, US soldiers had the highest venereal disease rate of any country, over 70%, by some sources, and by WWII, the US military had come around and begun actively promoting safe sex. In 1949, Japan produced the first colored condoms, and lubricated rubbers debuted in the 1950s. In the 60s, polyurethane condoms were introduced, but were quickly pulled from the market because of their high rate of breakage. Spermicidal lubricant was first introduced in 1975.

The late 1960s saw a downturn in the condom business. Between the introduction of the pill and antibiotics taking the fear out of syphilis and gonorrhea, the idea of a sensation-dulling barrier lost a lot of its appeal. This turned around dramatically after the world learned about HIV in the 1980s, and the discovery that condoms dramatically reduced transmission of this incurable disease. Suddenly condoms were big business again. The wild 1990s saw the introduction of sized condoms, along with novelty products like flavors, ribs, studs, and even glow-in-the-dark rubbers. Polyurethane was reintroduced, with newer technologies solving the old issues of breakage. Condom innovations continue, as safe-sex becomes more and more a prominent social issue. And, for those with latex allergies, or who just like things old-school, be assured you can still buy condoms made of animal gut. They’re available on line or in your favorite drugstore—right next to the magnums and the ones ribbed for your pleasure.

So should we take time in a romance for our heroes to put on a condom? That question remains up to the author and the reader. Feel free to leave your opinion in the comments below, I’d love to hear them. But if you’re going to write it, do it right. Learn a little about the history of this marvelous invention. Make the condom fit the place, the time, the story—and, of course, the hero.

References:
 Youssef, H (01 Apr 1993). “The history of the condom”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.
Link: article
 Brodie, Janet Farrell, 1997. Contraception and Abortion in Nineteenth Century America, Cornell University Press.
Link: article
 “Trojan Condoms History (Including a History of Condoms)” from the Trojan Condoms website: Trojan Condom History
 “The History of Condoms” from the Everything-Condoms.com: history of condoms

A NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR
(& contest!)

I want to thank Delilah for having me here today and letting me share the fun. I most recently used this research in my Steampunk/Fantasy/Romance, Steam & Sorcery, Book 1 of a brand new series called The Gaslight Chronicles at Carina Press. It just came out this week, and you can read an excerpt here.

To celebrate the new release, I’m running a contest. Comment on any (or all) of the blogs I visit on my blog tour this week. One entry per person, per blog stop. You can visit my blog to find the other stops. After the final stop on Sunday, March 13, I’ll draw one winner for a free download of Steam & Sorcery, or their choice of my other available titles. Happy Reading!

14 comments to “Guest Blogger: Cindy Spencer Pape (Contest!)”

  1. Sharon Buchbinder
    Comment
    1
      · March 10th, 2011 at 9:15 am · Link

    Hi Cindy–Great post. I can tell you as a health educator, it’s still hard to get young people to appreciate and use this simple precaution. With respect to use in our writing, I think there needs to be a fit with the genre, also. Werewolves, Djinn and Vampires are not likely to use them–unless they glow in the dark. :twisted: Thanks for the wonderful review.

    Sharon Buchbinder
    Author, Desire and Deception



  2. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    2
      · March 10th, 2011 at 9:15 am · Link

    Thanks so much to Delilah for having me here today!



  3. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    3
      · March 10th, 2011 at 9:19 am · Link

    Thanks for coming by, and your insightful comments, Sharon. I do try to make it fit the genre, believe me. In most of my worlds, my werewolves are fertile, so they do end up using protection, and even my one series with vampires includes them. But, for instance, in a futuristic story I wrote, the characters have implants that take care of both fertility and disease, so of course they don’t need them. It does depend on the mythos of the characters, I agree!



  4. Kim Bowman
    Comment
    4
      · March 10th, 2011 at 9:26 am · Link

    Very informative post! Thank you. Congrats on the release.



  5. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    5
      · March 10th, 2011 at 11:08 am · Link

    Thanks, Kim. This was a fun article to write. (and research!)



  6. Allie
    Comment
    6
      · March 10th, 2011 at 11:11 am · Link

    Fascinating information. Thank you for sharing. I do agree with Sharon about various paranormals not being likely to use condoms for otherworldly reasons, but I like that to be spelled out somewhere ahead of time or else I spend time wondering about it. Did they discuss this? Why are they not doing the safer sex thing?



  7. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    7
      · March 10th, 2011 at 2:36 pm · Link

    That makes perfect sense, Allie!



  8. Diane Sadler
    Comment
    8
      · March 10th, 2011 at 7:50 pm · Link

    WE should all be responsible so yes condoms are a subject that should always be raised!



  9. JenM
    Comment
    9
      · March 10th, 2011 at 10:31 pm · Link

    Whenever I read a historical, I always wonder how available condoms were at that time. I guess now I know. That was a fascinating post. Personally, I think it’s good to have the characters use protection, at least in contemporary romances. I don’t think it ruins the flow of the story or anything.



  10. Jen B.
    Comment
    10
      · March 10th, 2011 at 10:37 pm · Link

    The history of the condom is surprisingly interesting! I have found references in a number of books and then gone online to look up additional info. Great post today!



  11. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    11
      · March 11th, 2011 at 12:31 pm · Link

    Thanks, Diane, Jen M & Jen B! Glad you enjoyed my article.



  12. FredTownWard
    Comment
    12
      · March 11th, 2011 at 10:22 pm · Link

    Precisely for the reasons you give, demands for “responsible” sexual behavior by characters in historical romance novels is a bit silly. Only in contemporary romance novels does this argument have any merit, since it is only in contemporary times that the full danger has become apparent.



  13. Cindy Spencer Pape
    Comment
    13
      · March 12th, 2011 at 1:04 pm · Link

    I agree to an extent, Fred, but in Victorian times, the risks of pregnancy or syphilis were certainly known and condoms in England were readily available. Less so in the US, but for that period, I do tend to put them in my erotic romances.



  14. lisagk
    Comment
    14
      · March 12th, 2011 at 11:15 pm · Link

    Wow what interesting information. A bonnet that tied. sounds kinda cute. lisagk at yahoo dot com